Sill plates are what anchor your home to the ground. And it is also the first part of your flooring system that tends to rot fast.
If your sill plates are exposed to water moisture or termites for years, they eventually rot out, taking down your whole house along with it.
So a rotting sill plate needs to be replaced immediately. If you look at your house’s structure from the inside, you will find square-looking woods between the joists behind the insulation.
But sill plate replacement sounds like a heavy job, right?
Don’t worry. In this article, I will show you the detailed steps, from identifying a rotten sill plate to how to install a new one. So stick with me until the end.
How To Replace A Rotted Sill Plate: 5 Key Processes
Replacing sill plates is a complicated task as it requires you to remove the foundation base of your house without disrupting the balance of the whole weight.
But if you follow the described processes and steps to the T, you won’t face any issues while taking care of this yourself.
|Determine The Sill Condition||Understand the damage level|
|Create a Continuous Load Path||To support the weight with a frame|
|Remove The Sill||To replace with new ones|
|Repair Inside Out||Remove the stud|
|Ventilate The Crawl Space||For keeping the sill dry|
Determine The Sill Condition
Before landing on any decision, first, make sure that the issue you are facing is really caused by a rotten sill plate and not anything else.
- If you can’t see the sill from your basement or crawlspace, it is the only way to locate and observe it for signs of damage physically.
- The exterior siding may be buckling up or cracking.
- The suspected room may have a significant dip, or the floor may become spongy.
Create A Continuous Load Path
Once you have determined the damage, now it’s time to create a frame that will hold the weight of your house when the sill plate is being replaced.
- Wrap the floor with plastic sheeting to protect and collect the debris.
- Find the wiring and plumbing location in the wall area.
- Take the drywall off. For this, you can use a pry bar, a hammer, and a reciprocating saw.
- Measure the 6 feet area of the sill plate and mark it.
- Put nails on the steel strapping pieces extending downward on every stud of the elevated wall that is not being rebuilt.
- Put 1 or 2 nails in the stud and 1 nail in the top plate.
- Position the hydraulic jack on the floor where the sill and studs need to be changed.
- If your wall is long, place a movable column every 8 feet.
- To spread the weight, slide a spare piece of 2-by-4 below the jack.
- Use a bigger wood base on a dirt surface to prevent the assembly from digging in.
- Put a 4-inch metal support plate on top of every single adjustable column on the jack.
- Adjust the column until it fits perfectly by sliding it beneath the top wall plate.
- Put a second column on the side of the replacement stud that is on the opposite.
- Lift the jack gradually in 1/4-inch increments.
- Adjust the jack-up to another 1/4-inch, examine the stability of everything, lift the wall a little, and then add the adjustable column.
Remove The Sill
After the frame has been installed, it’s time to pull out the sill plate carefully.
- Take your reciprocating saw and cut the nails holding the nearby sill plate to the studs. Afterward, remove it.
- Cut the necessary portion of the sill plate that needs to be taken off.
- Find any bolts you see keeping the sill plate in position and cut the sill plate on both sides.
- Carefully pull the sill plate out with the hammer.
- If any lag bolts are sticking out from the concrete footing beneath the sill plate, cut them as well.
Repair Inside Out
A rotten sill also damages the adjacent joints, so it is necessary to repair the whole area and give it a proper finish.
- Use a vacuum to remove the rotten wood’s sawdust, dirt, and wood fragments.
- Attach angled brackets on the bottom of every 2-by-4 stud that isn’t being changed.
- Using composite fiber shims, steady the replacement sill plate into position and ensure it is leveled.
- Use the 3/8-inch masonry bit to drill through the sill plate and the concrete below, then install the new 3/8-inch lag bolts.
- Replace the bottom of the 2-by-4 stud by sliding it.
- Then remove the nails holding the top plate in place from the top with the hammer.
- Slide the new 2-by-4 stud into the wall where the previous stud was by placing an angled bracket over either end.
- Nail the stud on the top plate to keep it steady.
- Start gradually lowering the wall in 1/4-inch increments.
- Put the other column as before with the jack column.
- Keep on checking the level of the stud you replaced in the lowering process to ensure it fits properly.
- Take the jack and columns off once the adjacent wall and the stud are set on the sill plate.
- You can use regular nails to tighten the bottom brackets.
- Using the trowel, apply joint compound to the drywall seams and smoothen it out as much as possible.
- Allow to dry, then sand and finish.
Ventilate The Crawl Space
By now, you should already know that moisture is the main enemy of sill plates. So once you’re done replacing it with a new one, make sure moisture never gets to it again.
- Install extra vent holes to add additional ventilation to your foundation.
- Install a mechanical air circulating system that can pass through the air under your feet to keep things dry.
Why Is My Sill Plate Rotting?
We have almost reached the end of the article, and if you have stayed with me until now, then you should know what you need to do exactly the next time you face this issue.
But wouldn’t it be better to know why these issues occur so you can prevent them from happening in the first place?
- Water or excessive humidity flowing down near the house. This could happen if you have a leaky roof or a clogged gutter.
- Infestation of termites and other wood-eating or living insects.
- Putting down fresh concrete directly contacting the house’s foundation’s wood.
- Non-treated wood was used to install your sill plate, which could cause early wood rot.
It takes a long time to repair rim joists and sill plates using a floor hydraulic jack.
According to experts, it should be done gradually over several days, at a rate of roughly 1/8 of an inch every day or every few hours.
Additionally, it is suggested to top the jack once the rotten wood is reachable securely.
Once the jack has raised your foundation, you may remove the rotten timber and install a new beam.
If a structural engineer advises adding an extra stud wall, it will probably be done after this stage of construction.
What size is the sill plate?
A sill plate or a sole plate is the bottom horizontal portion of a wall or structure to which the vertical studs are fastened.
The majority of sill plates are constructed from timber and typically measure 2″ x 4″, 2″ x 6″, 2″ x 8″, or 2″ x 10.
What sits on a sill plate?
The band joist and floor joists in platform construction sit on the sill plate.
They support the subfloor and the base plate, also known as a bottom plate or sole plate, to which the wall studs are mounted.
Can just window sills be replaced?
If your window sill plate is rotting or you simply want to give your windows a new look, you can replace the sill plate within a day.
Do you have to jack up a house to replace a rim joist?
Yes, a jack is required for rim joist replacement.
You must release pressure from this junction before starting to work in order to minimize sagging and make it easier to remove load-bearing wood.
A replacement of a sill plate and rim joist is normally not a do-it-yourself job because it requires hydraulics and other specialist equipment.
The ideal method for rebuilding rotting rim joists and sill plates is to hire a qualified structural engineer and skilled contractors.